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Modern History Monday- Architectural Primer * Greek Revival

Posted by Meredith on 24 April 2016 | 0 Comments

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Greek Revival Saratoga Springs NY

Greek Revival Home in Saratoga Springs, NY

 

The truly interesting thing about the Greek Revival style of architecture in America is that the style and its popularity was driven by an IDEA rather than a fashion.  This was an intellectual exercise, and was meant to announce to all, who and what we were as Americans.

 

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A little history lesson here to remind you where America was philosophically - The American Revolution ended with Great Britain, creating the United States in 1783, but the new nation still looked to Europe for trade and diplomatic relationships.  The young government was creating its OWN version of democracy to govern and unite the former colonies. A VERY SHORT 20 years later, Thomas Jefferson made a HUGE land deal called the Louisiana Purchase in 1803....it was a landmark property purchase from France (at the time, France was governed by Napoleon).  The purchase essentially DOUBLED the size of America.

 

louisiana purchase map lg

Map of Louisiana Purchase and other Territories prior to 1860

There were questions, objections and various concerns over the legality or constitutionality of the deal, but the purchase went ahead and a vast area of the country was opened up to settling (and governing!). 

 

 

The energy of the new country and its citizens was intense, and hugely important to our vision of ourselves as Americans.  A strong sense of civic pride and NATIONAL pride was everywhere.

 

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At this same time in our history, the craze of Roman and Greek "style" was everywhere in Europe and America.  Fueled by the recent discovery of Pompeii and a desire for the romanticized ideals of Ancient Rome and Greece, all the old fashions of dress, furniture and architecture was swept away in favor of this new ideal.  The citizens of this new country, recently emerged from war, wanted a new style that represented their highest ideals as a country.  Strong, prosperous, and most of all, NOT European!

Everywhere in America, from Boston to the newest territory, people began to build houses and public buildings that represented this new attitude.  This is a New Republic...founded on the ideals of Ancient Rome and Greece...everything was designed to say that America was the inheritor of all the best of the ancient idea of Democracy. 

 

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First Federal Bank, Philadelphia, PA - 1791 - Federal style building with Greek Revival facade and details, columns and decoration

 

While the earlier forms of a "classical" house/building style (Georgian and Federal) referenced the classical architecture of Greece and Rome with pediments and symmetry, it did so with respect to the ornament applied such as garlands and frieze decoration, it was not generally trying to replicate an exact building.

 

1 2 961 25 Girard Bank newFirst Bank of the United States, or The First Federal Bank - from the side it is shown that it is a Federal style building with a Greek Revival or Classical facade.

 

 

The most common way that the Greek Revival style is identified is the resemblance to or replication of an actual Greek or Roman temple, with columns and the simple rectangular shape of that building.  Early on, the strictest interpretation would have the simplest of columns, Doric, representing the idea that this is the "purest" form of the style. 

 

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The First Bank of Pennsylvania - 1799 - Benjamin Latrobe - considered the first major Greek Revival building in America (demolished 1867)

 

But it not just the presence of columns that identify the style, it is also the general temple form of the building.  A simple, rectangular box with a low gabled roof creating a low pediment on each end.  The proportions of this shape were also important.  The materials were often intended to mimic stone, especially in the public buildings of this style.

 

w. strickland 2nd national bank of us philadelphia pa 1818 1824

Second National Bank, Philadelphia, PA 1818 - The oldest major Greek Revival building still standing in USA

 

 

Mechanics Bank and Merchants Bank Building New Bedford

Mechanics' Bank and Merchants' Bank, New Bedford, MA 1834

 

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 Congregational Church, Crawford, PA 1836

 

Founders Hall Girard College 1833

Founder's Hall, Girard College - 1833

 

Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim Synagogue

Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim Synagogue Charleston, SC 1840

 

Saint Peters Roman Catholic Church Manhattan New York

 Saint Peter's Church, Lower Manhattan NYC - 1834

 

Otsego County Bank Building 19 Main Street Cooperstown

 Otsego Bank, Cooperstown, NY 1831

 

sailors snug harbor dormitporis row

 Sailor's Snug Harbor Dormitory Row - Staten Island, NY 1833-1880

 

custom house new bedford 1836

Custom House, New Bedford, MA 1836

 

Unitarian Church Portsmouth NH 1824

Unitarian Church, Portsmouth, NH 1824

 

Not only did we want to proclaim our stature as the "New Rome", or the "New Athens" in our public buildings - banks, Customs Houses, libraries, and churches, but our domestic architecture wanted to announce our stature as citizens of a new democracy.  Everyone could inherit this notion of democratic equality and build a house to show it.  From Mystic, Connecticut to Minnesota, from Detroit, Michigan to Huntsville, Alabama - houses were built by the simplest farmer to the wealthy merchants.

 

cannonball house Macon GA

 Cannonball House, Macon GA 1853

 

56 Pearl Mystic CT Erastus Denison House 1840

 Mystic, CT 1840

 

13 West Mystic Chapman 1840

 Mystic, CT 1840

 

cambridge ma greek revival

 Cambridge, MA

 

1865 house minnisota

Minnesota 1865 - forgive the paint color, but it does make the Greek Revival details stand out!

 

rochester hervey ely house

Hervey-Ely House, Rochester, NY 1837

 

1840 Harpursville NY

 Harpursville, NY 1840

 

Sibley House Detroit

Sibley House, Detroit, MI 1848 The oldest remaining wood building in Detroit

 

Saxton Hall Greek Revival in New York side AFTER

Saxton Hall, Cornwall-on-Hudson 1830

 

Early American Greek Revival New York 12

Brick Greek Revival, NY

 

Grahamsville ny

 Grahamsville, NY originally built as a chapel

 

gable end Greek Revival

 

 

Gahamsville NY C.Burton Hotel

 C. Burton Hotel, Grahamsville, NY 1851

 

 

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alabama plantation

Webb-Bonds House, Greensboro, AL 1855

 

shotgun house

New Orleans "Shotgun" house

 

oak place huntsville al

Oak Place, Huntsville, AL 1840

 

 

Architectural Elements and Details

 

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Basic Temple Architectural Elements

 

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Greek Revival Architectural Elements

 

The most identifiable element of the Greek Revival style are the freestanding columns, but look for the applied columns, or pilasters as well.  At the top of the pilasters and just under the roof line will be a wide band detail or frieze, and the roof will be a low pitched, gable roof.  A distinctive feature of the style is to have the gable end of the building facing the street.  The structural details will be strong and simple, with simple ornamentation, rather than the delicate garlands and tracery of earlier styles.

The Greek Revival style is the embodiment of the IDEA that America is the inheritor of the virtues and ideals of ancient Greece and Rome.  While Europe was also in a classical revival of these ideals, nowhere did it take greater hold than during the early decades of America's existence. 

As Americans forged westward we took the idea that we were the "New Republic", the "New Rome", the "New Athens" and built buildings to match this ideal.  We named towns Utica, Syracuse, Athens, Cincinnati, and Ithaca, and created public and private buildings to show these ideal virtues.  We created something new that matched our idea of ourselves as strong, sturdy citizens of a new, proud nation.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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